Category Archives: Christian Living

SHOULD CHRISTIANS CELEBRATE HALLOWEEN?

Kevin R. Airrington
27 October 2013

This essay is a resource for Christian families who are looking for answers about Halloween. 

I know before I even publish this that I will take heat for even bringing up the subject of Christians celebrating Halloween.  Let me say up front that my goal is to lift up Jesus in everything I say and do.  I stand for truth. I stand for Jesus, and I am not ashamed.

If you are a Christian and you celebrate Halloween…that’s your business.  Just like it is your business to smoke crack and cheat on your wife.

Luke 6:46 KJB, “And why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say?”

INTRODUCTION

Several years ago I reposted two very good articles about Halloween on my Ministry Website: www.airrington.com.  I did not write these articles, but I thought they answered some questions about Halloween.  They are very good articles but what I should have done is take the time to write my own article and inject my personal beliefs, detailed history and what the Bible has to say on the matter.

Should you and I as Christians be involved in the celebration of Halloween?

Finding the answer to that question has been an interesting journey in itself.   I have my own reasons and Biblical reasons  to say the least of these — Joshua 24:2, 15, And Joshua said unto all the people, Thus saith the Lord God of Israel…choose you this day whom ye will serve…but as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord.  This should be enough.  Done!  But many Christian’s , too many, are OK with some sins….why I have no idea.  Have you read Paul’s list or John’s lists of the sins that will keep you from Heaven.   SIN IS SIN. (1 Corinthians 6:9-11, Revelation 21:8 KJB)

Numbers 32:23b KJB,  “. . . behold, ye have sinned against the LORD: and be sure your sin will find you out.”

God is clear in His Word about a good many things…yet it seems that many tend to ignore them.  They tend to make God in his or her own image instead of the way around.  Many will not read this article because it is too long and we just can’t be bothered, besides I just don’t believe that stuff is our excuse.  “My pastor says Halloween is okay to celebrate.”  Your Pastor is just a man and he is wrong about this!  That’s a pretty bold statement, I agree, but perhaps after you read this essay you will change your mind.  I hope you do…for the love of God, and if Christ’s death means any to you…I hope you do!

As I searched the Internet to get opinions, thinking I would find many God fearing Churches shout, “CHRISTIANS DO NOT CELEBRATE HALLOWEEN”…what I found instead was the saints of God defending, even glorifying Halloween as some sort of Christian Holiday; perhaps as important or more important than Christmas or Easter.

Shocking! First, I did find a site that said, “10 Reasons why Christians should NOT celebrate Halloween.”  Then the very next one in the search was, “7 reasons why Christians SHOULD celebrates Halloween.”  Ay ya yay!

No wonder Christians are confused about almost every subject.  Another site said, “We should not worry about spirits, ghosts, and satanic symbolism with Halloween we should worry about drunk drivers and other social issues.”  Are you serious?  Yes, those things are important…

again, may I… ay ya yay!  The Bible I read and perhaps yours is different than mine says,For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.”  Ephesians 6:12

HISTORY OF HALLOWEEN

I have heard a lot of ‘TALK’ about Halloween being a Christian Holiday…just look at the thousands of people on Facebook, Youth Pastors and Senior Pastors alike all justifying this holiday as some sort of I don’t know what…some sort of Christian All Saint’s Day.

Let’s you and I just see about all this Christian Holiday business.

The name “Halloween” comes from the All Saints Day celebration of the early “Christian” church, a day set aside for remembrance of the martyrs.   The word Halloween comes from the term “All Hallows Eve” which occurred on October 31st, at the end of the summer in Northwestern Europe.  “All Saints Day,” Or “All Hallows Day” was the next day, November 1st.  Halloween is the eve of All Saints Day.   “All Hallows Eve” was eventually contracted to “Hallow-e’en,” which became “Halloween.”

As near as I could find out; the earliest origins of Halloween can be traced back to about the time of Jesus Christ.  These origins were primarily from an ancient Ireland and Scotland.  On October 31st, the Celtics celebrated the end of summer.  During this important time of the year for herders they would move their animals into barns and pens in order to prepare for and ride out the long winter months ahead.   Also, this was the time that the farmers harvested their crops.   This annual changing of the seasons and the “lifestyle” was celebrated by a festival called Samhain – pronounced ‘sow-ane’.   Few Christians have heard this term.  Samhain is still celebrated today as an ancient pagan festival of the dead by witches all over the world.  In some of the earliest Irish literature sources you will find mentioning’s of Samhain.  Many important events surround Samhain…they either take place on Samhain or around this time period.

Samhain is one of four Gaelic seasonal festivals: Imbolc, Beltane and Lughnasadh make up the other three.  Samhain along with Beltane, bonfires were lit and rituals began.   These bonfires as well as the ashes are said to have protective and cleansing powers.  And that’s not all.  They also performed many rituals that involved the bonfires.  Samhain, like Beltane is seen as a time when spirits could easily make entrance into our world.  The aos sí – pronounced ‘ees shee’ and the older form aes sídhe – pronounced ‘ays sheeth-uh’, it is usually spelled Sìth but you would pronounce it the same.  (Star Wars – Remember the Sìth – Star Wars is the most occultic movie of all time.)…This is a supernatural race that some believe is the remnants of the pagan gods and nature spirits.  They are said to be ancestors, the spirits of nature or gods & goddesses and they walk among the living.

They also believe that the aos sí needed to be propitiated or appeased in order to ensure that their livestock survived the winter.  So, if you make the deity happy they will protect your livestock.  The souls of the dead were welcomed into their homes and the dead kin would also have a place of honor set for them at the table for them.  “Guising” is part of the festival.  This involved people going door to door in a disguise and reciting verses in exchange for food or coins.  (trick or treat).  Costumes were used to disguise themselves from the aos sí (the spirits).

Divination, which involved nuts and apples were a big part of the festival.  Divination is a systematic method by which the individual attempts to gain an answer to a question or a situation in their lives by way of an occultic process or ritual.   They may gain this knowledge through reading signs, events or through contact with a supernatural agency.

The Roman Catholic Church changed the dates of All Saints Day from 1 November to 2 November (they are good at changing dates— look at Christmas.  The Jews also monkey with dates…changing the Jewish calendar so that Jesus would not line up as the Messiah but a favorite Rabbi would, see my article called, “THE JEWISH CALENDAR”) and it later became ‘All Soul’s Day’.  Overtime Samhain and All Saints’/All Souls’ Day merged to help create what we now celebrate as Halloween.   Towards the end of the 20th century, Celtic neopagens and Wiccans have observed Samhain or something very similar based on it.  Make no mistake this IS a RELIGEOUS HOLIDAY but NOT a CHRISTIAN HOLIDAY.    Samhain is celebrated all over the world…and at different times of the year.  The name may change as well, but it is the same RELIGEOUS HOLIDAY.

Samhain, like Beltane was a time when the doorway to the underworld was opened to the this world.  This allowed the SPIRITS OF THE DEAD to come into our world.  The way I read this Samhain is basically a FESTIVAL FOR THE DEAD.  The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn says that the sidhe (fairy mounds or portals to the Otherworld) “were always open at Samhain”.

“According to the Dindsenchas and Annals of the Four Masters, which were written by Christian monks, Samhain in ancient Ireland was associated with the god Crom Cruach. The texts claim that King Tigernmas (Tighearnmhas) made offerings to Crom Cruach each Samhain, sacrificing a first-born child by smashing their head against a stone idol of the god.”  THAT’WICKED…hey lets go trick or treating!

Ronald Hutton ((1996) Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford, Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-288045-4) he writes: “When imitating malignant (it will destroy you as opposed to benign which is just a pain) spirits it was a very short step from guising to playing pranks”.   In other words, imitating evil spirits is about the same thing as dressing up in costumes and going door to door or playing pranks.   Playing pranks at Samhain is recorded in the Scottish Highlands as far back as 1736 and was also common in Ireland, which led to Samhain being nicknamed “Mischief Night” in some parts.  I think Mischief Night could accurately describe todays modern Halloween.   Many teenagers and young adults…play all kinds of pranks…toilet papering a tree…throwing eggs at a house…putting dog poop in a paper bag and setting it on fire so the unsuspecting victim stomps it out on their porch gets poop in their slippers and more.

Trick-or-Treating came from the custom of going door-to-door collecting food, coins and fuel for bonfires and/or offerings to the aos sí for the Samhain festival.  Trick-or-Treating also has roots in collecting ‘Soul Cakes.’  This is an English practice where given out to Soulers (mostly children and the poor) who would go door-to-door on Halloween singing and saying prayers for the dead (Idolatry, more on this later).   These small round cakes were eaten and they would represent a soul being freed from purgatory.  Traditionally the Soul Cakes with glasses of wine were set out on All Hallows’ Eve as an offering for the dead.  This ritual of children going door –to-door begging for Soul Cakes on All Saints Day was known as ‘SOULING’.

In 1891, the Reverend M.P. Holmes from Tattenhall, Chesire discovered the song from a little girl at the local school (Gregory, E. David (2010). The Late Victorian Folklore Revival. Scarecrow Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-8108-6988-2.).    In the 1950s the soul-cake song was still being collected in England.

The 1891 song contained the following lyrics:

A soul! a soul! a soul-cake!
Please good Missis, a soul-cake!
An apple, a pear, a plum, or a cherry,
Any good thing to make us all merry.
One for Peter, two for Paul
Three for Him who made us all.

In 1963, Peter, Paul and Mary, an American Folk Group recorded their version of the song and entitled it: ‘A Soalin’:

Soul, soul, a soul cake!
I pray thee, good missus, a soul cake!
One for Peter, two for Paul,
Three for Him what made us all!
Soul cake, soul cake, please good missus, a soul cake.
An apple, a pear, a plum, or a cherry, any good thing to make us all merry.
One for Peter, two for Paul, and three for Him who made us all.

American Hallowe’en composer Kristen Lawrence found two historical tunes associated with soul cakes, she was struck that the beginning notes were the same as the mediaeval plainchant Dies Irae, “Day of Judgment.”  The lyrics call for the people to repent and pray for the dead (Idolatry, more on this later). (British rock musician Sting recorded a song called “Soul Cake”.  You can listen to the song on his 2009 album, “If on a Winter’s Night”.   What am I saying; this is the 21st Century, head over to You Tube!  (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bu8H5rA9HuA).  It’s a snappy little tune with a nice beat…and my head was surely a bobbin’, however, the chorus will send chills down your spine!  His version seems to be an adaption of Peter, Paul & Mary; however, his refers to Christmas rather than All Saints’ Day or All Souls’ Day. “A Soul Cake, a soul cake…anything to make us merry.  We’ll hope you will be kind…And we’ll come no more a-soulin’…till Christmas time next year.”

That…”a soul cake a soul cake a soul cake…” chant makes me uneasy.  Like some sort of Satanic chant.  I think I will pause and pray right now…to be honest…all of this has made me uneasy and it is scaring the hell out of me!

“Dear heavenly Father, I thank you for your outrageous love for us.  Thank you for your Word…and your knowledge.  Lord as we explore the dark side of a holiday that drips in demonic activity I pray for Your protection and your comfort.   Oh God!  I am feeling very uneasy right now.  Like someone or something is watching me and they are not pleased with what I am writing…I rebuke these demonic spirits in the name of Jesus…you are the most high God…protect me and shower me with your love.  I pray that all those that read this are blessed and educated Lord.  That they will see the truth and they will follow your law.  Thank you Jesus.”

I’m am sorry, I had to do that…I am not simply filling words up on a page…I really am feeling scared and uneasy.

One thing that comes to mind at this point is that the Scripture firmly teaches that we are not to pray to anyone but the Father, The Son and the Holy Ghost.  Catholic doctrine teaches us to pray to the Saints.  Catholicism teaches it is okay to pray to Saints and other creatures.  I firmly believe that praying to anyone other than God is IDOLATRY.  I have no problem with Christians in Heaven hearing what is said on earth.  Many Christians seem to deny this fact, however, this is clearly taught in revelation 5:8-14.  Just because people in Heaven can hear the prayers on earth does not mean we can pray to them.  They can only hear the prayers and praises of God and this is only granted by God, let’s not give the Saints any powers that they do not have.

“The Roman Catholic Church prefers to say that it possible for the Saints in heaven hear every prayer of every creature all the time; otherwise, it would not be possible to pray to Mary legitimately.  The standard Protestant objection is that praying to the saints implies a type of omniscience on the hearers’ part. Their argument based on what we do not know, not what we do know.

There is no biblical teaching at all that states we are to pray to those who once were alive on earth and are now in heaven.  Biblically, prayer is always offered to God, and is a form of worship.  Further, prayer is not the same thing as talking to someone face-to-face.  Prayer is a humble petition to the Lord and not to a friend who’s in the same room with you or on the other end of the phone — or in heaven.  Prayer is offered to God, never to any created thing.  To do so is to offer worship that should only be directed to God, which is idolatry.”

The Bible teaches us to pray to God in Jesus name: 1 Pet 1:17, Eph 3:14.

By participating on Halloween you are breaking the very first commandment, Exodus 20:4, “Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.”

Certainly, anyone that prays to dead people is an Idolatress! REPENT — Acts 3:19!

Pumpkins & Jack-o’lanterns —

A traditional Irish turnip Jack-o’-lantern from the early 20th century.
Photographed at the Museum of Country Life, Ireland

One of the traditions for guisers or pranksters was to hollow out turnips or mangel wursels (beets or other root vegetable).   Once hollowed out they would place a candle in them to act as lanterns.  Quite often they were carved with grotesque and frightening faces to represent spirits or goblins.  They were also used to protect themselves from harmful spirits.  Interesting, an evil spirit to protect you from and evil spirit…no thank you…I think I will rely on my Holy Spirit.   They were common during Somerset or Punkie Night.  Punkie Night is an English custom practices on the last Thursday of October.

Children marched around with a jack o’lantern and sang a song which goes:

It’s Punkie Night tonight
It’s Punkie Night tonight
Adam and Eve would not believe
It’s Punkie Night tonight

There are some variants of this old rhyme which also include these lines:

“Give me a candle, give me a light If you don’t, you’ll get a fright”

or alternatively:  “Give me a candle give me light If you haven’t a candle, a penny’s all right”

As Cooper and Sullivan (Cooper, Q. & Sullivan, (1994). Maypoles, Martyrs and Mayhem. London: Bloomsbury books.) explain, this relates to the tradition where children would beg for candles on this night, and threaten people who refused to give them anything.

Morrell (Morrell, Patricia; Peter Clark (Illustrator) (1977). Festivals and Customs. London: Pan Piccolo Books) explains how, in earlier times, farmers would put a traditional “Punkie” on their gates to ward off evil spirits at this time of year.

The Jack o’lantern comes from an Irish folklore about a man Jack who tricked the devil into climbing a tree.   Once the devil was in the tree, Jack carved a cross on the trunk, preventing the devil from climbing down.  The devil made a deal with jack (he is good at that) not to allow Jack into hell after jack died and all he had to do was remove the cross from the tree.  After Jack dies, he couldn’t go to hell and he couldn’t go to Heaven.   Poor Jack was forced to wonder around the earth with a single candle to light his way.  The candle was placed in a turnip to keep it burning longer.   In the 1800s the Irish began to immigrate to America they changed from the turnip to the pumpkin.  Along with these traditions they brought with them the black cat which is considered to be reincarnated spirits who had prophetic abilities.

Halloween is an occasion when the ancient gods (actually demons) are worshiped with human sacrifice.  The origins are not of Christian origins (notice the word “Christian” in quotes at the beginning of this essay?)  …the origins of Halloween are a mixture of old Celtic pagan rituals, demon incantations, worship of the dead, superstition and early Catholic traditions.

Many have claimed the “Christian” roots of Halloween.  I guess that all depends.  It depends if you count Catholics as Christians.  Now let me be perfectly clear.  Do I think Catholics are going to Heaven? No, absolutely not.  The Catholic Church is nothing but a cult that dabbles in blatant Idolatry, Sorcery, Islamism and Saint Worship.    However, there will be Christians that attended mass that do make Heaven, but it will not be because of their religion it will be in spite of it!  It will be because of Jesus! Snap-Apple Night, painted by Irish artist Daniel Maclise in 1833.
It was inspired by a Halloween party he attended in Blarney, Ireland, in 1832.

The caption in the first exhibit catalogue:

There Peggy was dancing with Dan
While Maureen the lead was melting,
To prove how their fortunes ran
With the Cards could Nancy dealt in;
There was Kate, and her sweet-heart Will,
In nuts their true-love burning,
And poor Norah, though smiling still
She’d missed the snap-apple turning.

On the Festival of Hallow Eve.

The most frightening thing about the Snap-Apple painting (never mind the eerie resemblance to the drink we call SNAPPLE —which I think there is more there than meets the eye.)…it looks EXACTLY like a Church sponsored HALLOWEEN ALTERNATIVE PARTY…maybe trunk r treat or Harvest Party! Games, dancing, bobbing for apples, singing, eating…candy and more.  I mistakenly took my children to our church’s trunk or treat.  First, in the church fellowship hall… it look just like the Snap-Apple painting.  They had women dressing as men, men dressing as women…witches, goblins, etc.   They were putting fake tattoos on the kids; tattoos of pumpkins, witches, black cats, goblins, ghosts, etc.   PLEASE CHURCH WAKE UP…WE ARE THE SAINTS OF GOD AND WE ARE ASLEEP AT THE WHEEL!!!!

The origins of Halloween are Celtic in tradition and have to do with observing the end of summer sacrifices to gods in Druidic tradition. In what is now Britain and France, it was the beginning of the Celtic year, and they believed Samhain, the lord of death, sent evil spirits abroad to attack humans, who could escape only by assuming disguises and looking like evil spirits themselves. The waning of the sun and the approach of dark winter made the evil spirits rejoice and play nasty tricks. Believe it or not, most of our Halloween practices can be traced back to these old pagan rites and superstitions.

Before we move on I think it is important that we have a look at how Wicca, the official religion of witchcraft, has to say about Halloween.

Perhaps they viewed the day as a simple fun and innocent neighborhood activity?

I don’t know if I should be shocked or I should have seen this coming.   Halloween is a real, sacred day for those who follow Wicca. In fact, it is one of two high and holy days for them. The Celtic belief of spirits being released is current, along with the worship of Samhain (the lord of death) – both are promoted as something to embrace on that day.   I am convinced that those who believe and practice witchcraft, that Halloween represents a tremendous opportunity to embrace the evil, devilish, dark side of the spiritual world.  If you are not convinced of this, please take a trip with me to Ashland, Oregon, just north of the California border on Halloween night.  The streets will literally be filled with Wiccan…demonic activity.

SHOULD CHRISTIANS CELEBRATE HALLOWEEN

An old proverb says, “When you sup with the devil, use a long spoon.” Presumably, NO genuine Christian would want to sup with the devil at all and yet many may be doing so in ignorance.

Halloween is celebrated by millions of people as a fun time for kids, putting on costumes, and going door-to-door to get candy. But it is also known as a time of witches, ghouls, goblins, and ghosts. On one hand, some see Halloween as a harmless time of fun and on the other, a ghastly and demonically inspired night to be avoided.

As Christians, there is a lot of debate on whether or not we should participate in Halloween. Is it alright to go trick-or-treating? Can we dress our kids up in costumes on that day? If we do any of this, are we celebrating an evil holiday?

My son, Joshua is just six years old told me, “daddy all the people that think Halloween is a Christian Holiday is lying it is actually a devil holiday.”  Now how in the world did my six year old figure this out and YOU HAVEN’T?

My daughter Rosebud, my 11 year old daughter has an answer for those that believe that Halloween is a Christian Holiday, “Well that just explains it all!  Kids dressing up with blood all over them, pitchforks and tails with triangles on them (obviously her observation of a devil), ghosts and goblins and witches…I don’t even get that.  Yeah, it’s a Christian Holiday.”

To be honest, on the surface it is clear that Halloween is a satanic holiday…and should scare the bezeebers out of us forcing us to recite the Scripture, “greater is He that is within me than He that is in the world.”  Let alone the history which we have just uncovered…if you really are a Christian as you claim to be…you should have a very uneasy feeling in your spirit…you should be scared as hell.

A few points about Hallowen:

  • October 31st has long been known as “The Festival of the Dead.” The Celtic tribes and their priests the Druids celebrated this day as a marker for the change from life to death.
  • Witches celebrate Halloween as the “Feast of Samhain,” the first feast of the witchcraft year. Being a festival of the dead, Halloween is a time when witches attempt to communicate with the dead through various forms of divination.  Christians should not be involved with occultic practice or divination. Note God’s command against divination in Deuteronomy 18.
  • Villagers, fearful of the possibility of being visited by the ghosts of past occupants, would dress up in costumes to scare the spirits on their way. They would also leave food and other treats at their door to appease the spirits so they would not destroy their homes or crops but instead move on down the road. Occultists also would try to scare away the spirits by carving a scary face into a pumpkin.
  • In some witchcraft covens, the closing ritual includes eating an apple or engaging in fertility rites. In the Bible (Genesis 3), eating a piece of fruit brought sin and death into the world. In witchcraft, eating an apple is symbolic of bringing life. The practice of bobbing for apples brings together two pagan traditions: divination and the fertility ritual.
  • Schools are removing any religious significance from Christmas (often called winter break) and Easter (spring break). Isn’t it ironic that most public schools still celebrate Halloween even though it has occultic origins?
  • Participating in Halloween gives sanction to a holiday that promotes witches, divination, haunted houses, and other occultic practices.

Source: These bullet points were barrowed from Probe Ministries in Richardson, Texas. (http://www.fillthevoid.org/Occult/TenReasonsChristiansShouldNotCelebrateHalloween.htm)

Some of you are not interested in what the Bible commands, however, you have stuck with me thus far, we know with certainty that we as Christians, as Saints of God, as Ambassadors of Christ that we are forbidden to become involved with the works of darkness (Ephesians 5:11). “And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them.”

As a minister of the Gospel and being saved for over 25 years I have seen the devastating effect on lives when this commandment is broken.  Remember, God’s promise of protection for ourselves and that of our children is for those that are in His will and that promise may no longer hold true if we allow our children to celebrate this dark religious holiday.  Rebellion is the same as witchcraft the Bible tells us.  Ever wonder why children raised in an environment where Halloween is celebrated are in rebellion!  It is difficult enough to raise our children in a Godly manner in this day than to purposely expose them to Satan and the realm of darkness.

Satan and his demons have created a maze of ‘alternate religions’ to keep as many people deceived and confused as possible.  A brief study of history will show that Satan as introduced one false belief system after another.  He knows that our love for God and our God given desire to serve Him can easily be short circuited by these false religions.  He has told one lie after another: “all roads lead to God”.  Some uneducated Christians or Christians who refuse to hear the truth believe this lie.  All roads do not lead to God.  There is one God, the Creator of all.  Jesus is the ONLY Road to God and without Jesus Christ, there is no salvation.

It is clear, and all Christians need to know this, the devil wants to deceive us and keep us from discovering the truth.  Can we agree on that much today?  I am writing this for Christians, my brothers and my sisters.  The Church and Christians make one compromise after another.  Where in God’s Word and it is just a question, where does it say we must compromise with the world and become tolerant of other religions and sin?  Show me and I will never again preach the Gospel.  If that is so, then I am wrong…wrong about everything I know to be true of God.

You might say, Brother Kevin…my kids dress up as Barbie, Mickey Mouse or Pirates.  I always go with them, so that they are safe.  We never carve scary faces on pumpkins.  We have so much fun decorating our yard as a cemetery.  First, let me ask you mom, dad…what happens when you take your children tout Guising in their Barbie Costume and their Pirate Costume (arrggg!!!) and they see other children dressed as demons, ghosts, hookers, witches and an assortment of other occultic creatures?   What do you say to them?  WAIT!  Don’t answer me too quick.  Think…think…I know it hurts…but think!  You are building a foundation with your children and right now you have a moment.  What will you say?  What can you possible say that will not mold them and how they think about the occult?

If you say, “It’s okay Sarah; it’s all fun…just fun.”  You have just taught your child that it is OK to emulate evil and THAT IS WHAT THEY WILL REMEMBER.  1 Thessalonians 5:22 says, “Abstain from the APPEARANCE of EVIL.”  How about this one mom, “Oh honey, just ignore them…they are not Christians and they do not know any better.”  Congratulations mom, you have now just taught your child to not care about the lost and the dying…the ones that need Jesus.  Great parenting.  “Who is this guy, talking to us like this…it’s none of his business and he needs to use some tact.”    Who am I?  I am a dad; a grandfather, a husband, a Pastor…and I love you enough to tell you the hard truth…tact?  If you have not been watching the news, Jesus could return any minute!  Do you know how many people died from cancer last year alone?  We don’t have time…we need to share the truth in love and sometimes the truth hurts.

And speaking of truth, there is no response that you could share with your children that would erase the representation of evil and the occult on Halloween…you will dull their ability to determine what is evil and dark and what is pure and light.

One that I have been hearing a lot and reading on Facebook lately…I even saw a Youth Pastor’s wife say, “It’s all for fun.”  Your children will come to accept that they can enjoy Halloween that it is all in fun.  Maybe they have dressed up as a witch or a demon…hey it’s all in fun.  How about let them read Goosebumps or how about your read them the latest Stephen King novel before bed…it’s all in fun.  Maybe your son comes home one day and announces he talked to his grandmother who passed away 6 months ago.  His buddy whipped out a Ouija board and grandma was right there…it’s all in fun.  Maybe your daughter comes home late from school…her beautiful blonde hair is died black…nails are black…lipstick is black.  She announces that she is a Wiccan and she is in touch with mother earth on a truly spiritual level…groovy man…hey, it’s all in fun.  Maybe one night you get a call from the local police…your son or daughter is in jail.   The police had arrested them because of occultic activity…murder…desecrating a body…child endangerment…OH MY WHAT DID THEY DO?  The skinned a 6 month old baby alive as a sacrifice to the druid god Aba Kulana (I made that name up)…hey it’s all in fun. Your children have heard you say all their life that evil doesn’t hurt anything…it’s all in fun…as long as you don’t mean it to be serious…

Now, you are thinking that I am going too far.  But every single example I have given is a true one.  Listen to me mom and dad!  When we do not give our children FIRM direction in these areas, the devil will have free access, access that you have allowed and it will confuse and mislead your children.  Our children are not saved because we are.  They must choose Jesus for themselves.  If we do not tell that that the supernatural realm doesn’t have to be taken seriously, then they will not take it seriously and they will not take JESUS serious!

My children will not celebrate or participate in Halloween because:

– I don’t want them to underestimate the devil

– I don’t want them to open up to demonic influence

– I don’t want them to stumble into an area of the occult unaware

– I want them to know that I take the Bible literally

– I want them to prefer the light of the Gospel to the darkness of the occult

– I want them to know that it is OK to stand apart from the world on these issues

– I want them to recognize easily what is evil and stand against it in the name of Jesus

I could list many other reasons, but would you listen?  My children do not go to Harvest Parties or trunk or treats, etc.  THERE IS NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CHURCH SPONSORED HARVEST PARTY AND SAMHAIN!

When my children were in public school, we sent a note to school that said, “Dear teacher, we are Christians and do not participate in any fashion with the pagan holiday of Halloween.  As Christians, it is not appropriate for our children.  Please provide an alternate activity for my child if you plan to have parties, carve or color pumpkins or other occultic creatures.

Thank you for your understanding.  If you have questions, please call me.  God bless you, Mr. Airrington.  555-555-1212.”

If I have not convinced you that participating in Halloween in ANY FORM is wrong for a Christian, then you really have not prayed or thought about it.  If you choose this day whom you will serve and ask God to help you and give you wisdom in this area, He will.

What should Christians do?  Many believe they need to have a Harvest Party or the like so that their children are not missing out on the “fun” the others are having.  Remember what I said, THERE IS NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CHURCH SPONSORED HARVEST PARTY AND SAMHAIN!

My children have NEVER been trick or treating and they don’t miss it!  They don’t care.  Often times the holiday becomes part of the parent and the fun the parent has seeing Johnny dressed up like a cute little demon.  If you feel you need an alternative I will give you one…probably the only one.

THE ONLY ALTERNATIVE HALLOWEEN FOR CHRISTIANS

Remember, when Jesus spoke with Peter about His church, he promised him that, “…the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.”  Matthew 16:18 This is a very clear mandate from our King…we are to take hell by violence!  Some Christians believe we need to take a defensive posture and hide in a corner protected by our shield of faith…no way…Jesus is talking of about offensive action here.  We need to seize the day and attack Satan’s Kingdom.

This is what we do at the Airrington house:  Those little demons and Barbie’s are coming…you can turn off your porch lite…pray you are not the attack of a prankster…hide in the corner with your shield or YOU CAN TAKE HELL BY VIOLENCE! 

Get a small zip lock baggy…put a few pieces of candy in it, I put a lot of candy and chocolate.  This is not the time to be cheap,  you want them coming back next year and to tell their friends. Maybe a pencil with a Bible Scripture, some Bible Stickers (kids love stickers) and go to www.passthewordkjb.com  or www.chick.com and order some comic tracts.  You can search for Halloween or get any of them… My Favorite is, “Who’s your Daddy?”  They are cheap…just 18¢ each.  Buy 1, 25 or 100! If you order from PASS THE WORD KJB, you will have to order packs of 25.  I also add 2 to 4 crayons, so the kids can color he comic tracks.

On the back there is room to write your church or stamp it in…or your website or anything…a message…or leave it blank.  Zip it all up in the baggy…any extra candy let your kids eat it or hide it and you eat it!

Then pour yourself a hot bowl of Chili…shred some Cheddar Cheese and onion it…butter up the corn bread and wait for the doorbell.  Go to the door for safety with your kids…but let them hand out the bags.  They will be excited they are spreading God’s Word.

The Bible says “my people are destroyed for lack of knowledge.” That is so true! We do need to know what the Word says. It is relevant to our present lives, not just our eternal! Many of us have wasted a lot of years and we are just finding out what God has to say about our lives.

My family does not celebrate Halloween.  We don’t even pretend that it’s good, or make believe that somehow it’s a Christian event.  Halloween has roots in witchcraft, the occult and human sacrifice plain and simple.   It is the devils attempt to get some glory.  I’m always saddened this time of year when I see the number of Christians and churches that dress Halloween up like a baby in a pumpkin suit and follow the world.  If it’s just for dress-up and candy, we can do that any day of the year.  As believers anything we see the masses flocking to, we should be very leery of.  In public schools for example Halloween is celebrated and lifted up, yet Jesus is not allowed.   Like any family decision I encourage you to seek the Lord.

Ask yourself these questions for any choice you’re facing:

  • Does this activity lift up the Name of Jesus?
  • Would I do this activity with Jesus standing next to me?
  • Is this activity training my children in the way they should go?

You do not need an ‘alternative’ or substitute.   Changing the name to Harvest Festival does not change what it is.  Remember, we are in a war.  Will you fight or shall we just make up alternatives to the worlds wickedness?  

Romans 12:2, “And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God.”

WHAT DOES THE BIBLE SAY ABOUT HALLOWEEN

What does the Bible say about Halloween?  Everything!  You will not find the word Halloween or any of its previous names.  But the Bible is very loud concerning the occult, witches and demons.

Here are a few scriptures…if you have made it this far please don’t fade away at the most important part…God’s Word.

Exodus 22:18, “Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.”

Deuteronomy 18:10-14, ” 9 When thou art come into the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations.

10 There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch.

11 Or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer [communicating or praying to the dead].

12 For all that do these things are an abomination unto the Lord: and because of these abominations the Lord thy God doth drive them out from before thee.

13 Thou shalt be perfect with the Lord thy God.

14 For these nations, which thou shalt possess, hearkened unto observers of times, and unto diviners: but as for thee, the Lord thy God hath not suffered thee so to do.”

1 Corinthians 10:20-21 “20 But I say, that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God: and I would not that ye should have fellowship with devils.

21 Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord’s table, and of the table of devils.”

Galatians 4:8-11 “8 Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods.

9 But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage?

10 Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years.

11 I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.”

Romans 13:12a “The night is far spent, the day is at hand: let us therefore cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armour of light.”

God is definitely speaking negatively about occultic practices, spirits, witches and He condemns not only the practice but the people who chose to involve themselves in it.   King Saul found out and you and I have discovered this to be true, as Christians we are to have NOTHING to do with the occult.  Tarot Cards, praying to the dead (Idolatry), séances, lucky charms, talismans, demons, witches, mediums, etc.   These are all unbiblical and will harm our fellowship God.  They will open the Christian up to demonic oppression.  If you are having difficulty in your life…right now…this very second, reach in your pocket…what’s in your pocket?  What’s hanging around your neck?  A rabbit’s foot, a crucifix, St Christopher, a pentagram…get rid of it now and see if your circumstances don’t change.

Sadly, most Christians have heard this, read it in their Bible and ignore it.  One time I was talking with a Christian couple and I brought up this very subject.  Suddenly the man reached in his pocket and pulled a talisman…it was of one of the Catholic Patriarch Saints, I cannot remember which.   Everyone in the room starred at it…I finally broke the silence and said, “Where did you get that?”  He didn’t answer…he looked slowly in his wife’s direction.  His wife said almost very proudly, “I bought it for him.”  I said, “O, what did you do that for?”  She said, “I bought it for him when he had his heart surgery.”  I said, “what for?”  She said slowly as it began to dawn on her….”I ….I thought…it…would protect him!”  They told me that he had experienced one health problem after another since he started carrying that talisman.  I said, “Get rid of it.”  They said they would…but I have a feeling he still has it…he continues to have health issues.  Some unexplained by doctors.

THE FINAL WORD

The word “holiday” means “holy day.” But there is nothing holy about Halloween. The root word of Halloween is “hallow,” which means “holy, consecrated and set apart for service.” If this holiday is hallowed, whose service is it set apart for? The answer to that question is very easy-Lucifer’s!

As Christians you and I are placed in this world to be a light in a world of darkness. There is no lasting benefit to ignore a holiday that exists around us, but it also does harm to celebrate Halloween as it has originated and grown over the centuries.

REFERENCES

http://www.cbn.com/special/halloween/

http://sonyaschroeder.com/2011/10/shelving-the-lie-on-halloween/

http://heartofwisdom.com/blog/should-christians-observe-halloween/

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Copyright ©1989 - 2020 AIRRINGTON MINISTRIES | www.airrington.com |All Rights Reserved.

WATCH FOR CHRIST’S RETURN

Christians are commanded by both Jesus and Paul to watch for key prophetic signs that indicate the Lord’s coming is near, so we may never be deceived by anyone who claims the Lord has arrived or is about to arrived before Devine schedule (2 Thessalonians 2:1-3) ). Knowing can literally save one’s own life in the near future Tribulation!

Matthew 24:26-27

It will be no secret when the Lord Jesus returns. After a total blackout of the universe, the sign of Christ’s coming will then light up the entire skies, and the earth will be shaken with a mighty earthquake and the heavens will be split wide open with a sonic boom!

Jesus will then appear lightening fast, in flaming fire, with His mighty angels (Joel 3:16; Matthew 24:29; 2 Thessalonians 2:7-10; 2 Peter 3:10; Revelation 6:12-17;16:18).

REMEMBER: Jesus Christ is not merely a resurrected man. HE IS LORD GOD ALMIGHTY!

Zechariah 14:5 reads, “the LORD [JEHOVAH] MY GOD SHALL COME, and ALL the saints with Him” (cf. Revelation 1:7-8). He will not be alone and we see this in 1Thessalonians 4:14 as well.

1 Thessalonians 4:14, “For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them [saints, cf. Zechariah 14:5] also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him.”

and

Matthew 24 (Mark 13, Luke 21)

“Every eye will see Him coming in the clouds, in POWER and great GLORY. (Matthew 24:30)

Matthew 24:46, “Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.” What are you doing as you wait for His triumphant return?

1 Thessalonians 4:18 ends with these words, “Wherefore comfort one another with these words.”

Matthew 24 ends by warning us that He is coming…He is coming at an hour that you think not…”And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.” And when He does, “Christian” you may be counted with the sinners [hypocrites]…and there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Mark 13 ends with these words, “And what I say unto you I say unto all, Watch.”

Luke 21 ends with these words, “And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares…Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man.”

Clearly, Jesus is giving us fair warning…don’t be caught sleeping when the Son of Man returns. Watch…don’t be caught up doing the things of this world in excess or be consumed with alcohol and drugs and the don’t be consumed with the cares of this world so that when the day comes that you are caught unaware!

He’s coming folks…faster than you might think. Most of you have no idea…you never read your Bible…and you spend all your time arguing with those of use that do.

ARE YOU WATCHING?

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Copyright ©1989 - 2020 AIRRINGTON MINISTRIES | www.airrington.com |All Rights Reserved.

IS JESUS GOD?

JESUS IS GOD – THE EVIDENCE IS CLEAR

JESUS SAID HE WAS GOD AND THE FATHER CALLED JESUS GOD

Hebrews 1:8 KJB, “But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom.”

John 14:9, “Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Show us the Father?”

John 10:30, “I and my Father are one.”

Philippians 2:5-6, “Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus:

Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God:”

John 17:21, “That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me.”

John 1:18, “No man hath seen God at any time, the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.”

Colossians 2:9-10, “For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily.

And ye are complete in him, which is the head of all principality and power:”

John 10:33, “The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.”

John 5:18, “Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God.”

I AM

John 8:57-58, “Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?

Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.”

John 8:22-24, “Then said the Jews, Will he kill himself? because he saith, Whither I go, ye cannot come.

And he said unto them, Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world.

I said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in your sins: for if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your sins.”

John 13:18-19, “I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me.

Now I tell you before it come, that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe that I am he.”

FIRST AND THE LAST: THERE’S ONLY ONE GOD

From Isaiah to Revelation Jesus is the first and the last.

TRINITY

1 John 5:7, “For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.”

THIS IS ONLY ABOUT 1/5TH OF THE EVIDENCE. IT IS CLEAR…JESUS IS GOD!

JOHN HAGEE IS A HERETIC…

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Copyright ©1989 - 2020 AIRRINGTON MINISTRIES | www.airrington.com |All Rights Reserved.

DECEIVED

THIS IS HOW IT HOW IT HAPPENS: Nobody knows doctrine…nobody rightly divides the Word…everybody is to concerned that they be right, yet rarelt a”

Titus 2, “In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began;”

1 Timothy 4:13-16, “Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine.

Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery.

Meditate upon these things; give thyself wholly to them; that thy profiting may appear to all.

Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine; continue in them: for in doing this thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee.”

Matthew 24

V.3 – “And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?”

V.4, 5 – “And Jesus answered and said unto them, Take heed that no man DECEIVE you. For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall DECEIVE MANY.”

V.11 – “And many false prophets shall rise, and shall DECEIVE MANY.”

V.24 – “For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, IF IT WERE POSSIBLE, THEY SHALL DECEIVE THE VERY ELECT.

Mark 13

V.5 – “And Jesus answering them began to say, TAKE HEED lest any man DECEIVE YOU:”

V.6 – “For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall DECEIVE MANY.”

2 Thessalonians 2:1-6

2 Thessalonians 2:7-12

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Copyright ©1989 - 2020 AIRRINGTON MINISTRIES | www.airrington.com |All Rights Reserved.

TRUMP FRIENDLY SITES

NEWS

Fox News has shown their colors and are losing viewership by the millions to networks like OANN and Newsmax TV.  Faux “news” is neither conservative or alternative news…both claims that they have made.  Remember, “WE REPORT YOU DECIDE”?

They are feeling the pressure…reporters and anchors are coming unhinged on the air…as they scream at guests and co-workers.

One American News Network (OANN)

OAN

Newmax

https://www.newsmaxtv.com

Breitbart News

https://www.breitbart.coM

Conservative Firing Line

America First Movement

https://citizensfortrump.com

IOTW Report

https://iotwreport.com

INFO NEWS /INFO WARS / BANNED VIDEO

Sometimes a little over the top (like asking Trump for a wink and a nod and they have 30 to 50 Million Armed Militia at the White House)…however they do give you news others are afraid to report.

https://www.infowars.com

http://banned.video

Conservative Friendly News

https://www.conservativedailynews.com

Free Republic

https://freerepublic.com/

The Federalist Society

https://fedsoc.org

Christian Broadcast Network

https://www1.cbn.com

The Hill

https://thehill.com/

The Patriot Post

https://patriotpost.us

The American Conservative

The Daily Wire

https://www.dailywire.com/

PJ Media

https://pjmedia.com

MRC News Busters

https://www.newsbusters.org

Taki’s Magazine

Hot Air

https://hotair.com/

The Dan Bongino Show

https://bongino.com

SOCIAL MEDIA

Rumble

www.rumble.com

Parley

www.parley.com

MAGAbook

https://magabook.com

BROWSERS AND SEARCH ENGINES

4 Conservatives Search Engine

https://www.4conservative.com/

OTHER

Airrington Ministries

http://airrington.com

Please follow links at your risk. We done our best ensure link integrity. Let us know if you find any broken links. Also, these should all be TRUMP friendly and/or conservative friendly. Please let us know ASAP! If any of these sites promote anything but family 👪 Christian values we need to know that right away. Make cetain you provide a link to the exact page in question.

Lastly, if you know of any Trump friendly sites we missed please let us know.

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Copyright ©1989 - 2020 AIRRINGTON MINISTRIES | www.airrington.com |All Rights Reserved.

Portraits of the Apostles

Peter (Son of Jonah)

Greek from Aramaic: Rock

Original name in Greek (Simon): Hearing

Simon Peter, the son of Jonah of Bethsaida (Matthew 16:17), lived in Capernaum (John 1:42) as a skilled fisherman of Galilee. While Peter may have spoken colloquial Greek, his native tongue would have been Aramaic. According to Mark 1:30, Peter had a wife whose mother was healed by the Lord from a terrible fever. Both he and his brother, Andrew, were fishing partners with the sons of Zebedee (Mark 1:16), James and John.

As seen in Matthew 4:18-19, Christ had called these men into a new service – to be “fishers of men.” From this righteous command, Peter and the others learned to pick up their cross and follow Christ, the Son of the living God. Beforehand, Peter had been discipled by John the Baptist, the forerunner of Christ (John 1:35-42). Peter was instrumental in the proclamation of the Good News after the resurrection of Christ. After a full life of spreading the beloved gospel, tradition holds that Peter was martyred in Rome between AD 60-69. He was crucified upside down, considering himself unworthy to die the same death of his Lord. He has been considered the first traditional bishop of Rome and his tomb is believed to be under the high altar in the Basilica of St. Peter of Rome.

Unlike many of the disciples, we can identify well with Peter. His shortcomings of little and faltering faith in Christ are all too common in our own lives (Matthew 14:28-30). However, throughout scripture, he is known as the Rock (Matthew 16:18). From Pentecost onwards, he would become a “Pillar Apostle” (Galatians 2:9) and a foundational stone for the other apostles.

Before Christ entered his life, he had been considered arrogant boasting and a man of rash action. But then, from the moment of his calling by Jesus to his denial of Christ, he became a man of impulse and childlike simplicity mixed with much insecurity. These character flaws began to change after two influential interactions with Christ. Both the appearance of Jesus after the resurrection (Luke 24:34) and Christ’s commission to “feed my sheep” (John 21:15) brought a new light to the life of Peter. He was often singled out by Jesus (Mark 8:29-33) and was present for many miracles and amazing experiences (e.g. the raising of Jarius’s daughter to life (Mark 5:25-41), the transfiguration (Mark 9:2-8), and the arrest of Jesus in the garden of Gethsemane (Mark 14:43-50).

Peter took the leadership role of the early church and became known for his numerous miracles in the name of Jesus Christ. Throughout history, Peter has been particularly remembered for his threefold denial, his repentance, and the threefold commission of Christ. Although Peter was a diamond in the rough, God faithfully used him to show the beautiful grace found in Christ and the simplicity of faith in the Omnipotent God.

Andrew

Greek: Manly

As the brother of Simon Peter, Andrew was also a disciple of John the Baptist and was the first follower of Jesus to be identified by name. His interaction with Christ caused him to immediately leave and tell Peter of the Messiah, the Son of God (John 1:35-42). Eventually, he and Peter left their fishing business to follow their beloved Saviour. Within the glorious ministry of Christ, Peter and Andrew witnessed amazing marvels and miracles. Among them, Christ used five loaves of bread from a boy, brought forth by Andrew, to feed the five thousand people who had gathered to hear the word of God (John 6:8).

We find the last appearance of Andrew before the Passover festival in Jerusalem, and after the triumphal entry on the first Palm Sunday. Men from Greece approached Philip and Andrew hoping to see the Christ: “Sir, we wish to see Jesus.” Both Philip and Andrew returned to Jesus and told Him of these men (John 12:21).

Later in his ministry, Andrew preached the gospel to the Scythians, Sogdians, and the Sacae in Sebastopolis, Ethiopia, in AD 80. Because he would not submit to the Roman idols, he was crucified by Aegeas, the governor of the Edesenes, and buried in Patrae, in Archaia.

James and John (Sons of Zebedee)

Greek: Sons of Thunder

While mending their fishing nets, the sons of Zebedee, James and John, were called by Jesus to be “fishers of men.” The two brothers and Peter formed the innermost circle of Jesus’ closest companions. They became the eyewitnesses of the life, work, and resurrection of Christ Jesus. They were present to attest to the resurrection of Jarius’s daughter, to the transfiguration of the Lord, and to the events in the garden of Gethsemane. They became known as the “Sons of Thunder” for their high spirits and zeal as seen in their desire to destroy an unfriendly Samaritan city (Luke 9:51-56). However, they were also dedicated to the purpose of their Lord and played a significant part in the church.

Fifteen years after hearing the call of the Lord upon the shores of Galilee, James was killed under the rule of King Agrippa I. “Now about that time Herod the king stretched forth his hands to vex certain of the church. And he killed James the brother of John with the sword” (Acts 12:1-2). The martyrdom of James is the only biblical and reliable account of a death of one of the twelve apostles.

John was referred to as “one of the disciples, whom Jesus loved,” in the gospel of John and is said to be the author of the fourth gospel. John is the only disciple to be recorded as being present at the crucifixion of Christ. After the death of Jesus, he took the Lord’s mother, Mary, as his own. He was also the first to see the glorious sight of the empty tomb. John was one of the early leaders of the church and thus became known as a “Pillar of the Church” (Galatians 2:9). According to tradition, John was banished to the Island of Patmos (Revelation 1:9) after he survived being thrown into boiling oil under Domitian. On that desolate Island, John received visions of the future and words from the Lord to seven churches. The compilation of these visions and letters formed the Book of Revelation. John Foxe also adds that he was released from Patmos and allowed to return to Ephesus in the year of A.D. 97.

Philip

Philip is mentioned in all three Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) as the man from Bethsaida who was a disciple of John the Baptist. Both Philip and Andrew appear together in the listings of the apostles found in the gospels and in the Book of Acts. In the Book of John, he is portrayed as one who had a deep understanding of the Old Testament prophecy and of the coming Messiah; as well, he demonstrated a heart for missions (John 1:43-46; 12:21-22). However, he struggled with spiritual insight evidenced in his converse with Christ at the feeding of the five thousand (John 6:5-7; 14:7-9).

There is some dispute over the events of Philip’s later life and ministry. A second century Ephesian tradition believes he died at Hierapolis, roughly one hundred miles inland of Ephesus. Another tradition says Philip was crucified; and as a result, medieval art often depicts Philip on the cross.

Bartholomew

Greek from the Aramaic: Son of Tomai

Bartholomew is found in all four lists (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and Acts) of the apostles and was present during the selection of Matthias. Many scholars associate Bartholomew with the surname “Nathanael.” If the identification of Bartholomew with Nathanael is correct, Philip brought Bartholomew (Nathanael), a native of Cana of Galilee (John 21:2), to acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah. Yet, Jesus was already familiar with Bartholomew as seen in John 1:48-51:

Nathanael said to Him, “How do You know me?” Jesus answered and said to him, “Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you.” Nathanael answered Him, “Rabbi, You are the Son of God; You are the King of Israel. Jesus answered and said to him, “Because I said to you that I saw you under the fig tree, do you believe ? You will see greater things than these.” And He said to him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, you will see the heavens opened and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.

In the Gospel of John, he is mentioned with the seven apostles during the Lord’s last post-resurrection appearance (John 21:2). However, little information is revealed about his life and ministry with Christ. According to Foxe’s Book of Marytrs, he has been said to have preached throughout India and translated the Gospel of Matthew into their tongue. Later in his ministry, Bartholomew was beaten, crucified, and beheaded in Albinopolis, Armenia for the sake of his Master.

Thomas

Hebrew: A twin

Known as “Doubting Thomas,” he was the pessimistic, loyal, and practical disciple whose suspicions of the resurrection vanished as he touched the wounds of his risen Master. He was present in the upper room during Pentecost (when the Holy Spirit descended upon the believers). However, very little of the New Testament mentions him again. It seems that there are three significant occurrences involving Thomas and Christ.

The first occasion begins when Jesus was hounded out of Jerusalem and was seeking a quiet and secluded town for safety. When word came of Lazarus’s illness, Jesus waited two days before leaving for Bethany that the Father would be glorified. Although Thomas was frightened, he was loyal to his Master and accompanied Him during the dangerous travels. We come to understand the threatening situation and the loyalty of Thomas in John 11:16: “Let us also go, that we may die with Him.”

A second reference to Thomas’s interaction with Christ can be found in the upper room, during the Last Supper, before the arrest of Jesus. Jesus sat among his disciples and told them of His coming departure: “In my Father’s house are many mansions: if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you.” And Thomas responded with, “Lord, we known not whither Thou goest; and how can we know the way?” From this simple question came the beautiful answer that many Christians cherish today. “Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.” Indeed, He is the way and the life. By His grace, Christ is our daily strength and satisfaction. By His redeeming blood, we have access to the Almighty God.

Third, we rejoin the disciples in the upper room after the crucifixion of Christ as they hid from the Jews. Then Christ appeared to them in all His glorious magnificence; yet Thomas was not among the disciples (John 20:19-24). Being the practical man that he was, Thomas did not believe the other disciples when they had told him of their risen Lord. One week later, the followers of Christ hid once more from the Jews in the upper room. It was then when Christ appeared a second time and Thomas realized his Saviour had indeed raised from the dead. “Thus saith He to Thomas, reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.” As Thomas came to grips with the glorious understanding of his risen King, he cried, “My Lord and My God!”

According to tradition, Thomas traveled to Persia and South India, where he founded the ancient Mar Thoma Church, in Travancore and Cochin, now called Kerala. He has been recognized for writing an apocryphal book that may have been written in the second century. It has also been said that Thomas was martyred near Madras at Mount St. Thomas.

Matthew

Greek: Gift of God

Originally named Levi, Matthew, was a Jew from Capernaum (Mark 2:14). In Matthew 9:9, responding to Christ, he immediately “arose and followed Him” and began a new life serving the Lord. Many biblical scholars see this as a representative of how Christians should react when Jesus Christ exhorts them to seek the path of righteousness (Matthew 16:24).

The call of Matthew is told in all three of the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) as Jesus makes an unexpected choice to call forth a tax collector to be His disciple. As a tax collector, or publican, Matthew transferred taxes from both local merchants and farmers to the Roman state. In that day, tax collectors were seen as thieves because they often took taxes for personal gain.

Immediately after he rose to follow the Lord, Matthew gave Jesus a large banquet in which he invited many tax collectors and sinners (Luke 5:29). The Pharisees criticized Jesus for dining with such an appalling group of wretched sinners; yet Jesus rebuked them saying,” I have not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentance” (Luke 5:32). Indeed, He came to save sinners from all condemnation and eternal destruction. What a wonderful comfort to cherish! May we immediately rise up and seek Christ with all our hearts and souls. Thus, we will spend eternity in His everlasting and glorious presence!

Within his gospel, Matthew reveals the Messiah to be the fulfillment of the Old Testament law: for the Son of God is the true sacrificial lamb (Hebrews 10:10). Based upon the work of Mark, Matthew portrays the life of Christ in a more complete manner through long dissertations, as seen in the Sermon on the Mount. Throughout his book, Matthew emphasizes the teaching of Christ as a source of guidance for the church. In his later ministries, Matthew preached to Ethiopia and all of Egypt and was later killed with a spear under the leadership of King Hircanus.

James (Son of Alphaeus)

While his name appears in the four New Testament listings of apostles, little is known about James. He is usually identified with “James the Younger,” the son of Mary (not the mother of Jesus), and the brother of Joses (Mark 15:40; Matthew 27:56). This distinction of “younger” or “less” (Gk ho mikros) differentiates him from James the brother of Jesus and James the son of Zebedee. The terms “younger” or “less” refer to his younger age, smaller physique, and less significance. His mother, Mary, was among the crowd at the crucifixion of Jesus and the discovery of the empty tomb (Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40; 16:1; Luke 24:10).

Simon the Zealot

Before his calling to follow Christ, Simon was a zealous nationalist who wanted to drive out the Romans from the cities; his group tactics often resulted in bloody conflict. Both the Gospel of Luke and Book of Acts link Simon with Judas (not Iscariot) throughout their writings. Little is known about the lives of both Simon and Judas (not Iscariot). According to the apocryphal book, The Passion of Simon and Jude, we are told their lives ended in martyrdom in Persia.

Thaddaeus

Greek: “Large Hearted” and “Courageous”

Unlike the other apostles, Thaddaeus claims three separate names: Thaddaeus (Matthew 10:3), Judas, son of James (Mark 3:18), and Labbaeus (not found in the Revised Standard Version). However, little is know about the life and ministry of Thaddaeus. The New Testament records only one event involving Thaddeus: his question to Jesus during a message to the disciples after the Last Supper:

Judas (not Iscariot) said to Him, “Lord, what then has happened that You are going to disclose Yourself to us and not to the world?” Jesus answered and said to him, “If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our abode with him (John 14:22).

Judas Iscariot

Some believe the name “Iscariot” identifies Judas’s place of origin, since his father is described as “Simon Iscariot” (John 6:71; 13:2, 26). After his calling to seek the Lord, Judas Iscariot became the treasurer for the twelve disciples (John 12:4-6; 13:29). Because this position is not given to one of greedy and irresponsible conduct, it may be assumed that he showed positive characteristics before the other followers of Christ. However, the Gospel of John tells us that during his time as treasurer, Judas had become a thief, stealing from the treasury funds (John 12:6).

Judas has become infamous for his betrayal of Jesus. Both Luke and John render him to be under the influence of Satan himself (Luke 22:3; John 13:2). It may have been his greed that motivated him to betray Jesus for a worthless amount of thirty pieces of silver (Matthew 26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6).

In the Garden of Gethsemane, Judas led a band of soldiers to Jesus and identified Him with a kiss (Matthew 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-52; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:2-12). Yet when Jesus was condemned to death, Judas was filled with great remorse and returned the pieces of silver to the priests. Then Judas departed from the temple and committed suicide by hanging himself (Matthew 27:3-10; Acts 1:18-19). After the resurrection of Christ, Matthias replaced Judas within the circle of the twelve apostles (Acts 1:26).

Matthias

Greek: Gift of Jehovah

Before 120 followers of Christ, Peter gave an account of the life, ministry, and the death of Judas Iscariot. Because of the loss of Judas, a replacement was in order to fill the gap within the original twelve apostles. It was necessary to select one who had known them since the Lord’s baptism by John to the resurrection of the Son of Man. These twelve witnesses would represent the twelve tribes of Israel. Thus, these followers of Christ gathered together to cast lots between two candidates: Joseph called Barsabas (Justus) and Matthias. “And they drew lots for them, and the lots fell to Matthias; and he was numbered with the eleven apostles” (Acts 1:26). Many believe that Barsabbas and Matthias were among the seventy disciples who were sent out to proclaim the gospel (Luke 10:1). However, neither one is mentioned again in Scripture, nor is there any account for their later ministries.

Paul of Tarsus

Greek from Latin: Little

Paul, the author of thirteen New Testament Epistles, was born as an Israelite in Tarsus of Cilicia (Acts 22:3; Philippians 3:5). His original name was Saul. He studied under Gamaliel in Jerusalem (Acts 22:3) and became a Pharisee (Philippians 3:5). He was present at the stoning of Stephen (Acts 7:58; 8:1) and later became a persecutor of the church (Acts 8:1-3; Philippians 3:6). While he was seeking to have Christians bound, he was converted on the road to Damascus as Christ appeared to him (Acts 9:1-9). He went into Damascus (Acts 9:10-19) and then to Arabia for a period of time (Galatians 1:17) before returning to Jerusalem (Acts 9:26-29; Galatians 1:18). Eventually, he met with Barnabas and ministered with him in Antioch (Acts 11:25-26). Soon he began to go on various missionary journeys to bring the Gospel to the Gentiles. He was then imprisoned in Rome on two occasions and was martyred under Caesar Nero.

Please visit the timeline of Paul the Apostle for a detailed chronology of Paul’s life.

Barnabas

Greek from the Hebrew: Son of Exhortation

Originally from Cyprus (Acts 4:36), Barnabas settled Jerusalem. Both he and Paul of Tarsus (whose close friend he would become) shared similar Jewish roots (Acts 4:36) and Hellenistic backgrounds of the Jewish Diaspora. The first appearance of Barnabas in the New Testament can be found among the earliest converts, selling his lot of land and giving the profit to the apostles (Acts 4:36). He quickly became well liked and a respected leader within the apostolic circle.

Paul and Barnabas began a close partnership within the work of ministry. Their common background in the Diaspora and their traditional training as a Pharisee and Levite may have brought about the strong companionship.

Because of the heavy persecution of the Hellenized Christians, many believers were scattered as far as Phoenicia and Syria. Thus the church of Antioch was established in Syria, which would become the future headquarters of Paul’s journeys. The leaders in Jerusalem soon elected Barnabas to be the superintendent of the church and he, in turn, chose Paul to be his assistant. Barnabas accompanied Paul on a missions trip that covered approximately 1,400 miles of territory as they proclaimed the gospel and encouraged the body of Christ. During the first tour, Paul and Barnabas traveled to Cyprus with John Mark. Acts 12:25 and 13:5 imply that John Mark was in Antioch and later teamed with Paul and Barnabas. However, when Paul and Barnabas decided to climb the mountains to Antioch of Pisidia, John Mark turned back. During this first tour, Paul became the spokesperson, and even engaged in vigorous discussions within the council. Barnabas was also given recognition and even a divine title in Acts 14:12. Unlike Paul, he never experienced violence or stoning while ministering to others.

Following their first journey, Paul and Barnabas went to Jerusalem to settle the controversial issue of the law and circumcision. After a stimulating debate, it was decided that gentiles could be given admittance to the church if they conform to certain social customs of the Jews.

After a successful trip, Barnabas suggested that John Mark join them on the next journey. Yet Paul felt otherwise and the team divided. Paul traveled with another entourage and Barnabas and John Mark journeyed to Cyprus.

In any case, the dispute did not end the friendship between Paul and Barnabas. In a letter to the Corinthians, Paul uses both he and Barnabas as an example of apostles who still maintain a working trade while serving in ministry and they refused to accept charity from churches. Indeed, Paul, Barnabas, and John Mark all make vital contributions to the Christian faith and the New Testament.

Sources:

Wilkins, Michael J. “Disciples” in Joel B. Green, et al. Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. (Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1992), p. 180.

Brownrigg, Ronald. Who’s Who in the New Testament, (Nashville, Tennessee: Pillar Books for Abingdon Press, 1971)

Wilkins, Michael J. “Barnabas” in Joel B. Green, et al. Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. (Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1993), p. 66-67.

Foxe, John; Foxe’s Christian Martyrs of the World, (Uhrichsville, Ohio: Barbour and Company Inc, 1989)

Lockyer, Herbert. All the Apostles of the Bible, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1972)

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The Names of God in the Old Testament

  • Introduction
  • El Shaddai (Lord God Almighty)
  • El Elyon (The Most High God)
  • Adonai (Lord, Master)
  • Yahweh (Lord, Jehovah)
  • Jehovah Nissi (The Lord My Banner)
  • Jehovah-Raah (The Lord My Shepherd)
  • Jehovah Rapha (The Lord That Heals)
  • Jehovah Shammah (The Lord Is There)
  • Jehovah Tsidkenu (The Lord Our Righteousness)
  • Jehovah Mekoddishkem (The Lord Who Sanctifies You)
  • El Olam (The Everlasting God)
  • Elohim (God)
  • Qanna (Jealous)
  • Jehovah Jireh (The Lord Will Provide)
  • Jehovah Shalom (The Lord Is Peace)
  • Jehovah Sabaoth (The Lord of Hosts)

Introduction

“Let them praise the name of the LORD: for his name alone is excellent; his glory [is] above the earth and heaven.” Psa 148:13

In the Old Testament times, a name was not only identification, but an identity as well. Many times a special meaning was attached to the name. Names had, among other purposes, an explanatory purpose (e.g., Nabal, whose name means “fool,” is the target of Abigail’s explanation to David: “For as his name is, so is he; Nabal is his name, and folly is with him:” – 1Sa 25:25). Throughout Scripture God reveals Himself to us through His names. When we study these names that He reveals to us in the Bible, we will better understand who God really is. The meanings behind God’s names reveal the central personality and nature of the One who bears them.

Who is God to you?

Is He your Most High God, All sufficient One, Master, Lord of Peace, the Lord Who Will Provide? Is He your Father? We must be careful not to make God into an “it” or a “thing” to which we pray. He is our Jehovah Raah, the Lord our Shepherd. God knows us by our name, shouldn’t we know Him by His?

Hallowed be Your name?

To hallow a thing is to make it holy or to set it apart to be exalted as being worthy of absolute devotion. To hallow the name of God is to regard Him with complete devotion and loving admiration. God’s name is of the utmost importance (Neh 9:5); therefore we ought reserve it a position of grave significance in our minds and hearts. We should never take His name lightly (Exd 20:7; Lev 22:32), but always rejoice in it and think deeply upon its true meaning.

El Shaddai (Lord God Almighty)

(el shad-di’)
All-Sufficient One, Lord God Almighty

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament El Shaddai occurs 7 times. El Shaddai is first used in Gen 17:1.

Variant spellings: None

TWOT Reference: 2333

Strong’s Reference: H7706

El Shaddai in the Septuagint: theou saddai – God Shaddai; pantokratôr (for Shaddai) – the Almighty

Meaning and Derivation: El is another name that is translated as “God” and can be used in conjunction with other words to designate various aspects of God’s character. Another word much like Shaddai, and from which many believe it derived, is shad meaning “breast” in Hebrew (some other scholars believe that the name is derived from an Akkadian word Šadu, meaning “mountain,” suggesting strength and power). This refers to God completely nourishing, satisfying, and supplying His people with all their needs as a mother would her child. Connected with the word for God, El, this denotes a God who freely gives nourishment and blessing, He is our sustainer.

Further references of the name El Shaddai in the Old Testament: Gen 17:1; Gen 28:3; Gen 35:11; Gen 43:14; Gen 48:3

El Elyon (The Most High God)

(el el-yone’)
The Most High God

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament El Elyon occurs 28 times. It occurs 19 times in Psalms. El Elyon is first used in Gen 14:18.

Variant spellings: None

TWOT Reference: 1624g, 1624h

Strong’s Reference: H5945

El Elyon in the Septuagint: ho theos ho hupsistos – the God most high

Meaning and Derivation: El is another name that is translated as “God” and can be used in conjunction with other words to designate various aspects of God’s character. Elyon literally means “Most High” and is used both adjectivally and substantivally throughout the Old Testament. It expresses the extreme sovereignty and majesty of God and His highest preeminence. When the two words are combined – El Elyon – it can be translated as “the most exalted God.”(Psa 57:2)

Further references of the name El Elyon in the Old Testament: Gen 14:18; Gen 14:19; Gen 14:20; Gen 14:22; Psa 57:2; Psa 78:35

Adonai (Lord, Master)

(ad-o-noy’)
Lord, Master

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament Adonai occurs 434 times. There are heavy uses of Adonai in Isaiah (e.g., Adonai Jehovah). It occurs 200 times in Ezekiel alone and appears 11 times in Daniel Chapter 9. Adonai is first used in Gen 15:2.

Variant spellings: None

TWOT Reference: 27b

Strong’s Reference: h136

Adonai in the Septuagint: kurios – Lord, Master

Meaning and Derivation: Adonai is the verbal parallel to Yahweh and Jehovah. Adonai is plural; the singular is adon. In reference to God the plural Adonai is used. When the singular adon is used, it usually refers to a human lord. Adon is used 215 times to refer to men. Occasionally in Scripture and predominantly in the Psalms, the singular adon is used to refer to God as well (cf. Exd 34:23). To avoid contravening the commandment “Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain” (Exd 20:7), sometimes Adonai was used as a substitute for Yahweh (YHWH). Adonai can be translated literally as, “my lords’ ” (both plural and possessive).

Further references of the name Adonai in the Old Testament: Complete list available here.

Yahweh (Lord, Jehovah)

(yah-weh)
Lord, Jehovah

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament Yahweh occurs 6,519 times. This name is used more than any other name of God. Yahweh is first used in Gen 2:4.

Variant spellings: YHWH, Jehovah

TWOT Reference: 484a

Strong’s Reference: H3068

Yahwehin the Septuagint: kurios – Lord, Master
despotês – Lord, Master, denoting the omnipotence of God (TDNT), despot, absolute ruler

Meaning and Derivation: Yahweh is the promised name of God. This name of God which (by Jewish tradition) is too holy to voice, is actually spelled “YHWH” without vowels. YHWH is referred to as the Tetragrammaton (which simply means “the four letters”). YHWH comes from the Hebrew letters: Yud, Hay, Vav, Hay. While YHWH is first used in Genesis 2, God did not reveal Himself as YHWH until Exodus 3. The modern spelling as “Yahweh” includes vowels to assist in pronunciation. Many pronounce YHWH as “Yahweh” or “Jehovah.” We no longer know for certain the exact pronunciation. During the third century A.D., the Jewish people stopped saying this name in fear of contravening the commandment “Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain” (Exd 20:7). As a result of this, Adonai is occasionally a substitute for YHWH. The following compound names which start with “YHWH” have been shown using “Jehovah.” This is due to the common usage of “Jehovah” in the English of these compound names in the early English translations of the Bible (e.g., the Geneva Bible, the King James Version, etc.).

Further references of the name Yahweh in the Old Testament: Complete list available here.

Jehovah Nissi (The Lord My Banner)

(yeh-ho-vaw’ nis-see’)
The Lord My Banner, The Lord My Miracle

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament Jehovah-Nissi occurs only once in Exd 17:15.

Variant spellings: Jehovah Nisi; Jehovahnissi

TWOT Reference: None

Strong’s Reference: H3071

Jehovah Nissi in the Septuagint: kurios kataphugê mou – the Lord is my refuge

Meaning and Derivation: Jehovah is translated as “The Existing One” or “Lord.” The chief meaning of Jehovah is derived from the Hebrew word Havah meaning “to be” or “to exist.” It also suggests “to become” or specifically “to become known” – this denotes a God who reveals Himself unceasingly. Nes (nês), from which Nissi derived, means “banner” in Hebrew. In Exd 17:15, Moses, recognizing that the Lord was Israel’s banner under which they defeated the Amalekites, builds an altar named Jehovah-Nissi (the Lord our Banner). Nes is sometimes translated as a pole with an insignia attached. In battle opposing nations would fly their own flag on a pole at each of their respective front lines. This was to give their soldiers a feeling of hope and a focal point. This is what God is to us: a banner of encouragement to give us hope and a focal point.

Further references of the name Jehovah Nissi in the Old Testament: Exd 17:15

Jehovah-Raah (The Lord My Shepherd)

(yeh-ho-vaw’ raw-aw’)
The Lord My Shepherd

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament Jehovah-Raah (The Lord my Shepherd) is used in Psalm 23.

Variant spellings: Jehovah Rohi; Jehovah Ro’eh

TWOT Reference: 2185, 2186

Strong’s Reference: H7462

Jehovah-Raah in the Septuagint: kurios poimainei me – the Lord shepherds me

Meaning and Derivation: Jehovah is translated as “The Existing One” or “Lord.” The chief meaning of Jehovah is derived from the Hebrew word Havah meaning “to be” or “to exist.” It also suggests “to become” or specifically “to become known” – this denotes a God who reveals Himself unceasingly. Rô’eh from which Raah derived, means “shepherd” in Hebrew. A shepherd is one who feeds or leads his flock to pasture (Eze 34:11-15). An extend translation of this word, rea’, is “friend” or “companion.” This indicates the intimacy God desires between Himself and His people. When the two words are combined – Jehovah Raah – it can be translated as “The Lord my Friend.”

Further references of the name Jehovah-Raah in the Old Testament: Gen 48:15; Gen 49:24; Psa 23:1; Psa 80:1

Jehovah Rapha (The Lord Who Heals)

(yeh-ho-vaw’ raw-faw’)
The Lord That Heals

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament Jehovah-Rapha (The Lord that Heals) is used in Exd 15:26.

Variant spellings: Jehovah-Rophe; Jehovah Rophecha; Jehovah Raphah

TWOT Reference: 2196

Strong’s Reference: H7495

Jehovah Rapha in the Septuagint: kurios ho iômenos se – the Lord your healer

Meaning and Derivation: Jehovah is translated as “The Existing One” or “Lord.” The chief meaning of Jehovah is derived from the Hebrew word Havah meaning “to be” or “to exist.” It also suggests “to become” or specifically “to become known” – this denotes a God who reveals Himself unceasingly. Rapha (râpâ’) means “to restore”, “to heal” or “to make healthful” in Hebrew. When the two words are combined – Jehovah Rapha – it can be translated as “Jehovah Who Heals.” (cf. Jer 30:17; Jer 3:22; Isa 30:26; Isa 61:1; Psa 103:3). Jehovah is the Great Physician who heals the physical and emotional needs of His people.

Further references of the name Jehovah Rapha in the Old Testament: Exd 15:26

Jehovah Shammah (The Lord Is There)

(yeh-ho-vaw’ shawm’-maw)
The Lord Is There

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament Jehovah Shammah occurs only once in Ezekiel 48:35.

Variant spellings: Jehovah Samma

TWOT Reference: None

Strong’s Reference: H3074

Jehovah Shammah in the Septuagint: estai to onoma autês – the name thereof

Meaning and Derivation: Jehovah is translated as “The Existing One” or “Lord.” The chief meaning of Jehovah is derived from the Hebrew word Havah meaning “to be” or “to exist.” It also suggests “to become” or specifically “to become known” – this denotes a God who reveals Himself unceasingly. Shammah is derived from the Hebrew word sham, which can be translated as “there.” Jehovah Shammah is a symbolic name for the earthly Jerusalem. The name indicates that God has not abandoned Jerusalem, leaving it in ruins, but that there will be a restoration.

Further references of the name Jehovah Shammah in the Old Testament: Eze 48:35

Jehovah Tsidkenu (The Lord Our Righteousness)

(yeh-ho-vaw’ tsid-kay’-noo)
The Lord Our Righteousness

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament Jehovah Tsidkenu occurs 2 times. Jehovah Tsidkenu is first used in Jer 23:6.

Variant spellings: Jehovah Tzidkaynu; Jehovah Tsidqenuw

TWOT Reference: None

Strong’s Reference: H3072

Jehovah Tsidkenu in the Septuagint: kuriou tou theou hêmôn elalêsen pros hêmas – the Lord our God spoke to us

Meaning and Derivation: Jehovah is translated as “The Existing One” or “Lord.” The chief meaning of Jehovah is derived from the Hebrew word Havah meaning “to be” or “to exist.” It also suggests “to become” or specifically “to become known” – this denotes a God who reveals Himself unceasingly. Tsedek (tseh’-dek), from which Tsidkenu derived, means “to be stiff,” “to be straight,” or “righteous” in Hebrew. When the two words are combined – Jehovah Tsidkenu – it can be translated as “The Lord Who is our Righteousness.”

Further references of the name Jehovah Tsidkenu in the Old Testament: Jer 23:6; Jer 33:16

Jehovah Mekoddishkem (The Lord Who Sanctifies You)

(yeh-ho-vaw’ M-qadash)
The Lord Who Sanctifies You, The Lord Who Makes Holy

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament Jehovah Mekoddishkem occurs 2 times. Jehovah Mekoddishkem is first used in Exd 31:13.

Variant spellings: Jehovah M’kaddesh

TWOT Reference: 1990

Strong’s Reference: H6942

Jehovah Mekoddishkem in the Septuagint: kurios ho hagiazôn humas – the Lord that sanctifies you

Meaning and Derivation: Jehovah is translated as “The Existing One” or “Lord.” The chief meaning of Jehovah is derived from the Hebrew word Havah meaning “to be” or “to exist.” It also suggests “to become” or specifically “to become known” – this denotes a God who reveals Himself unceasingly. Mekoddishkem derives from the Hebrew word qâdash meaning “sanctify,” “holy,” or “dedicate.” Sanctification is the separation of an object or person to the dedication of the Holy. When the two words are combined – Jehovah Mekoddishkem – it can be translated as “The Lord who sets you apart.”

Further references of the name Jehovah Mekoddishkem in the Old Testament: Exd 31:13; Lev 20:8

El Olam (The Everlasting God)

(el o-lawm’)
The Everlasting God, The God of Eternity, The God of the Universe, The God of Ancient Days

Use in the Bible: El Olam is first used in Gen 21:33.

Variant spellings: None

TWOT Reference: 1631a

Strong’s Reference: H5769

El Olamin the Septuagint: [ho] theos [ho] aiônios – the everlasting God

Meaning and Derivation: El is another name that is translated as “God” and can be used in conjunction with other words to designate various aspects of God’s character. Olam derives from the root word ‘lm (which means “eternity”). Olam literally means “forever,” “eternity,” or “everlasting”. When the two words are combined – El Olam – it can be translated as “The Eternal God.”

Further references of the name El Olam in the Old Testament: Gen 21:33; Jer 10:10; Isa 26:4

Elohim (God)

(el-o-heem’)
God, Judge, Creator

Use in the Bible: : In the Old Testament Elohim occurs over 2000 times. Elohim is first used in Gen 1:1.

Variant spellings: None

TWOT Reference: 93c

Strong’s Reference: H430

Elohim in the Septuagint: theos – the standard Greek word for god, “a transcendent being who exercises extraordinary control in human affairs or is responsible for bestowal of unusual benefits” (BDAG). It specifically refers to the monotheistic God of Israel.

Meaning and Derivation: Elohim is translated as “God.” The derivation of the name Elohim is debatable to most scholars. Some believe it derived from ‘êl which, in turn, originates from the root word, ‘wl (which means “strong”). Others think that Elohim is derived from another two roots: ‘lh (which means “god”) in conjunction with ‘elôah (which means “fear”). And still others presume that both ‘êl and Elohim come from ‘eloah.

Further references of the name Elohim in the Old Testament: Complete list available here.

Qanna (Jealous)

(kan-naw’)
Jealous, Zealous

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament Qanna occurs 6 times. Qanna is first used in Exd 20:5.

Variant spellings: Kanna

TWOT Reference: 2038b

Strong’s Reference: H7067

Qanna in the Septuagint: zêlôtês – jealous

Meaning and Derivation: Qanna is translated as “jealous,” “zealous,” or “envy.” The fundamental meaning relates to a marriage relationship. God is depicted as Israel’s husband; He is a jealous God, wanting all our praise for Himself and no one else. (cf. Exd 34:14)

Further references of the name Qanna in the Old Testament: Exd 20:5; Exd 34:14; Deu 4:24; Deu 5:9; Deu 6:15

Jehovah Jireh (The Lord Will Provide)

(yeh-ho-vaw’ yir-eh’)
The Lord Will Provide

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament Jehovah-Jireh occurs only once in Gen 22:14.

Variant spellings: None

TWOT Reference: None

Strong’s Reference: H3070

Jehovah Jireh in the Septuagint: kurios eiden – the Lord has seen

Meaning and Derivation: Jehovah is translated as “The Existing One” or “Lord.” The chief meaning of Jehovah is derived from the Hebrew word Havah meaning “to be” or “to exist.” It also suggests “to become” or specifically “to become known” – this denotes a God who reveals Himself unceasingly. Jehovah-Jireh is a symbolic name given to Mount Moriah by Abraham to memorialize the intercession of God in the sacrifice of Isaac by providing a substitute for the imminent sacrifice of his son.

Further references of the name Jehovah Jireh in the Old Testament: Gen 22:14

Jehovah Shalom (The Lord Is Peace)

(yeh-ho-vaw’ shaw-lome’)
The Lord Is Peace

Use in the Bible: In the Old Testament Jehovah-Shalom occurs only once in Jdg 6:24.

Variant spellings: None

TWOT Reference: None

Strong’s Reference: H3073

Jehovah-Shalom in the Septuagint: eirênê kuriou – peace of the Lord

Meaning and Derivation: Meaning and Derivation: Jehovah is translated as “The Existing One” or “Lord.” The chief meaning of Jehovah is derived from the Hebrew word Havah meaning “to be” or “to exist.” It also suggests “to become” or specifically “to become known” – this denotes a God who reveals Himself unceasingly. Shalom is a derivative of shâlêm (which means “be complete” or “sound”) Shalom is translated as “peace” or “absence from strife.” Jehovah-Shalom is the name of an altar built by Gideon in Ophrah.

Further references of the name Jehovah-Shalom in the Old Testament: Jdg 6:24

Jehovah Sabaoth (The Lord of Hosts)

(yeh-ho-vaw’ se ba’ôt)
The Lord of Hosts, The Lord of Powers

Use in the Bible: Jehovah and Elohim occur with Sabaoth over 285 times. It is most frequently used in Jeremiah and Isaiah. Jehovah Sabaoth is first used in 1Sa 1:3.

Variant spellings: None

TWOT Reference: 1865a, 1865b

Strong’s Reference: H6635

Jehovah Sabaoth in the Septuagint: kurios sabaôth – the Lord of hosts (sabaôth: Gr. transliteration of Heb. “hosts”)

Meaning and Derivation: Jehovah is translated as “The Existing One” or “Lord.” The chief meaning of Jehovah is derived from the Hebrew word Havah meaning “to be” or “to exist.” It also suggests “to become” or specifically “to become known” – this denotes a God who reveals Himself unceasingly. Sabaoth (se bâ’ôt) means “armies” or “hosts.” Jehovah Sabaoth can be translated as “The Lord of Armies” (1Sa 1:3). This name denotes His universal sovereignty over every army, both spiritual and earthly. The Lord of Hosts is the king of all heaven and earth. (Psa 24:9-10; Psa 84:3; Isa 6:5).

Further references of the name Jehovah Sabaoth in the Old Testament: 1Sa 1:11; 1Sa 17:45; 2Sa 6:18; 2Sa 7:27; 1Ki 19:14; 2Ki 3:14; 1Ch 11:9; Psa 24:10; Psa 48:8; Psa 80:4; Psa 80:19; Psa 84:3; Isa 1:24; Isa 3:15; Isa 5:16; Isa 6:5; Isa 9:19; Isa 10:26; Isa 14:22; Jer 9:15; Jer 48:1; Hsa 12:5; Amo 3:13; Mic 4:4; Nah 3:5; Hag 2:6; Zec 1:3; Mal 1:6; Hab 2:13; Zep 2:9

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A Summary of the Contents of Each Bible Book

Old Testament

Genesis

Describes the creation; gives the history of the old world, and of the steps taken by God toward the formation of theocracy.

Exodus

The history of Israel’s departure from Egypt; the giving of the law; the tabernacle.

Leviticus

The ceremonial law.

Numbers

The census of the people; the story of the wanderings in the wilderness.

Deuteronomy

The law rehearsed; the death of Moses.

Joshua

The story of the conquest and partition of Canaan.

Judges

The history of the nation from Joshua to Samson.

Ruth

The story of the ancestors of the royal family of Judah.

1 Samuel

The story of the nation during the judgeship of Samuel and the reign of Saul.

2 Samuel

Story of the reign of David.

1 and 2 Kings

The books of Kings form only one book in the Hebrew MSS. They contain the history of the nation from David’s death and Solomon’s accession to the destruction of the kingdom of Judah and the desolation of Jerusalem, with a supplemental notice of the liberation of Jehoiachin from his prison at Babylon, twenty-six years later; they comprehend the whole time of the Israelitish monarchy, exclusive of the reigns of Saul and David.

The Books of Chronicles

are so called as being the record made by the appointed historiographers of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel; they are the official histories of those kingdoms.

Ezra

The story of the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, and of the rebuilding of the temple.

Nehemiah

A further account of the rebuilding of the temple and city, and of the obstacles encountered and overcome.

Esther

The story of a Jewess who becomes queen of Persia and saves the Jewish people from destruction.

Job

The story of the trials and patience of a holy man of Edom.

Psalms

A collection of sacred poems intended for use in the worship of Jehovah. Chiefly the productions of David.

Proverbs

The wise sayings of Solomon.

Ecclesiastes

A poem respecting the vanity of earthly things.

Solomon’s Song

An allegory relating to the church.

Isaiah

Prophecies respecting Christ and his kingdom.

Jeremiah

Prophecies announcing the captivity of Judah, its sufferings, and the final overthrow of its enemies.

Lamentations

The utterance of Jeremiah’s sorrow upon the capture of Jerusalem and the destruction of the temple.

Ezekiel

Messages of warning and comfort to the Jews in their captivity.

Daniel

A narrative of some of the occurrences of the captivity, and a series of prophecies concerning Christ.

Hosea

Prophecies relating to Christ and the latter days.

Joel

Prediction of woes upon Judah, and of the favor with which God will receive the penitent people.

Amos

Prediction that Israel and other neighboring nations will be punished by conquerors from the north, and of the fulfillment of the Messiah’s kingdom.

Obadiah

Prediction of the desolation of Edom.

Jonah

Prophecies relating to Nineveh.

Micah

Predictions relating to the invasions of Shalmaneser and Sennacherib, the Babylonish captivity, the establishment of a theocratic kingdom in Jerusalem, and the birth of the Messiah in Bethlehem.

Nahum

Prediction of the downfall of Assyria.

Habakkuk

A prediction of the doom of the Chaldeans.

Zephaniah

A prediction of the overthrow of Judah for its idolatry and wickedness.

Haggai

Prophecies concerning the rebuilding of the temple.

Zechariah

Prophecies relating to the rebuilding of the temple and the Messiah.

Malachi

Prophecies relating to the calling of the Gentiles and the coming of Christ.

New Testament

Gospel of St. Matthew

A brief history of the life of Christ.

Gospel of St. Mark

A brief history of the life of Christ, supplying some incidents omitted by St. Matthew.

Gospel of St. Luke

The history of the life of Christ, with especial reference to his most important acts and discourses.

Gospel of St. John

The life of Christ, giving important discourses not related by the other evangelists.

Acts of the Apostles

The history of the labors of the apostles and of the foundation of the Christian Church.

Epistle to the Romans

A treatise by St. Paul on the doctrine of justification by Christ.

First Epistle to the Corinthians

A letter from St. Paul to the Corinthians, correcting errors into which they had fallen.

Second Epistle to the Corinthians

St. Paul confirms his disciples in their faith, and vindicates his own character.

Epistle to the Galatians

St. Paul maintains that we are justified by faith, and not by rites.

Epistle to the Ephesians

A treatise by St. Paul on the power of divine grace.

Epistle to the Philippians

St. Paul sets forth the beauty of Christian kindness.

Epistle to the Colossians

St. Paul warns his disciples against errors, and exhorts to certain duties.

First Epistle to the Thessalonians

St. Paul exhorts his disciples to continue in the faith and in holy conversation.

Second Epistle to the Thessalonians

St. Paul corrects an error concerning the speedy coming of Christ the second time.

First and Second Epistles to Timothy

St. Paul instructs Timothy in the duty of a pastor, and encourages him in the work of the ministry.

Epistle to Titus

Epistle to Titus. St. Paul encourages Titus in the performance of his ministerial duties.

Epistle to Philemon

An appeal to a converted master to receive a converted escaped slave with kindness.

Epistle to Hebrews

St. Paul maintains that Christ is the substance of the ceremonial law.

Epistle of James

A treatise on the efficacy of faith united with good works.

First and Second Epistles of Peter

Exhortations to a Christian life, with various warnings and predictions.

First Epistle of St. John

Respecting the person of our Lord, and an exhortation to Christian love and conduct.

Second Epistle of St. John

St. John warns a converted lady against false teachers.

Third Epistle of St. John

A letter to Gaius, praising him for his hospitality.

Epistle of St. Jude

Warnings against deceivers.

The Revelation

The future of the Church foretold.

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You are being scammed!


Constantin von Tischendorf in 1870

Tischendorf (he “found” the Codex Sinaiticus in the “trash”) claimed the Codex Sinaiticus has more than 14,800 corrections or changes, making it the most corrected manuscript in existence.

About the same time the Codex Vaticanus was “discovered” is described as a 4th Century Text, however, under scrutiny it’s clear it was almost entire text has been overwritten by a 15th Century Scribe!

These two fake text would primarily become the Critical Text used by Westcott & Hort to create all these Modern Trashlations, such as; NIV, ESV, NASV, NWT, NLT, CEV, CSV, AMP, NKJV, WEB, and and nearly 300 more!

Still trust your Bible? 14,800 corrections and changes!!!

Come on Christians…think! You are being scammed!

ALL MODERN TRASHLATIONS (ESV, NLT, NIV, AMP, NASV, etc.) Use these manuscripts.

ALL OF THE MODERN TRASHLATIONS (NWT, ESV, NASV, NLT, NIV, CEV, AMP, etc.) use these faulty manuscripts. Check your bible right now. Is it missing Mark 16:9-20 (The Resurrection of Jesus Christ, The Great Commission [Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel…], The Ascension of Jesus Christ — DELETED!)? It may be marked with [brackets], italicized or footnoted (a) telling you that it does not belong there.

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Copyright ©1989 - 2020 AIRRINGTON MINISTRIES | www.airrington.com |All Rights Reserved.